Almost all of its neighboring countries had a significant impact on Poland’s culture. Taking from them only what seemed most appropriate to them, the Poles created their own unique space, which in the end turned out to be unlike any other in Europe. In Poland, they are sensitive to the cultural heritage, and, despite the rapid urbanization of the country, they preserve it, are proud of it and use it to increase the tourist attractiveness of their region.
The vast majority of Poles profess Catholicism, while being true believers who regularly attend church. Religion is one of the most important factors affecting not only the culture of Poland, but also the daily life of local people. What is only the architectural wealth of Polish churches, the number of which the country is ahead of all of Europe. Many calvarios are scattered throughout its territory, and the most famous of them, Zebrzydowska, is listed as a monument protected by UNESCO. Most of the holidays and traditions of Poland also have a religious background.
Poles have an honorable second place in Europe in the number of holidays per year:
Easter is the main holiday of the country. The day before, on Saturday, stores are operating on an abbreviated schedule, and are closed on Sunday and Monday. Schools do stop working on Thursday. A week before Easter, Poland traditionally celebrates Palm Sunday, decorating houses with tall floral arrangements. The morning of the Easter day, here called Velkanots, the Poles spend in churches, blessing baskets with Easter eggs and Easter cakes. And the next day is Irrigation Monday, when it is customary to pour water on each other as a sign of cleansing from sins in the villages.
The traditions of the celebration of Christmas in Poland can be seen already on Christmas Eve, in Polish – Gvyazdka. It is customary to sing carols, and the next day – hymns. The whole family gathers together, a rich table is set, on which a candle and diduh are always placed – a snook from cereals, symbolizing wealth.
Poland’s national traditions are also reflected in the Constitution Day, celebrated on May 3. The Poles always remember that they had the first constitution in Europe, and this happened in 1791.
Independence Day is celebrated on November 11, when a military parade is held on the main square of Warsaw.
Traditions and customs of Poland
First of all, we must understand that, in addition to religion, the Poles have another cult – families. In former times, large families lived under one roof, now more and more young people are separated from their parents, but kinship is still given great importance. The Poles did not immediately let in their narrow circle, therefore, before it will be allowed to call by name, it is customary to call unfamiliar people by their surname with the same “pan / pani”. Poland’s wedding traditions often surprise foreigners, in particular the ritual rites – this is a crazy carnival that accompanies putting on a cap on the bride, and corrections – the second day of festivities, sometimes dragging on for a week.
Polish folk clothes
Of course, now no one dresses in national costumes, and you can see them only in museums or folklore festivals. Moreover, they vary depending on the region, these are the features of the culture of Poland. So, in Krakow the most complex and interesting costume, consisting of multi-layered skirts, white embroidered shirt, vest and apron. For men, striped pants and a hat with an ornament are required. In other areas, outfits are dominated by bright colors, lace, interesting hats, beaded jewelry – monisto, beads, bracelets.
The musical culture of Poland
Speaking of traditional Polish music, it is worth highlighting national dances: oberek, mazurka, krakowyak and kuyavyak. Many dance groups perform them on holidays. For the most part, they are perky funny compositions. In addition to folk music, the Poles have something to be proud of with respect to the classics originating in the 13th century. Around then, the famous polonaise dance appeared. “Bóg się rodzi”, “Bogurodzica” are some of the oldest musical compositions originating from Poland. Witold Lutoslavsky and Henryk Gorecki are the two most famous Polish composers of classical modernism. Krzysztof Komeda was a well-known Polish jazz musician from the country who wrote soundtracks for 70 films. Do not forget about Frederic Chopin, whose name is given to the airport and many streets in Poland.
Literary works such as the chronicles of Gall Anonymous of the 9th century can also be attributed to the cultural monuments of Poland. The Renaissance era presented Poland with the poet Jan Kokhanowski, who brought the Polish literary language to perfection. In the XVIII century. the first theater in the country was opened, where Zabolotsky’s plays were staged. When at the end of the century Poland lost its independence, many writers left for other countries, but they did not stop writing in Polish, such as Adam Mickiewicz. Modern literature is known all over the world, for example, in 1924 Vladislav Raymond received the Nobel Prize for the novel “Flap.” His success was repeated in 1996 by Wislaw Shimborskaya, and Stanislav Lem became a recognized classic of science fiction.
Material and spiritual culture of Poland
The incomparable architecture of the country, for the most part, is represented by temples:
Gothic Gniezn Cathedral in the 14th century .;
Church of St. Thomas of Canterbury in Sulejow;
Church of Peace in Yavor;
Church of St. Paraskeva in Quaton;
Basilica of the Visitation of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Vambejice.
This is only a small part of the beautiful temple buildings in Poland, telling about its history and representing the culture of the country in all its glory. The pride of the Poles is the miraculous icon “Black Madonna” in the city of Czestochowa, allegedly painted by the Evangelist Luke.
National cuisine is part of the Polish folk culture. It originated in the Middle Ages, when food markets flourished in the country, and the Poles adopted new types of food and recipes from foreigners, adapting them to their needs. The most unusual dish in the country is goose blood blackberry soup, tourists usually prefer a more classic sausage with it. In any institution the visitor will be offered “golabki” – minced meat in cabbage leaves, dumplings and dances – potato pancakes. Of the drinks, local beer and honey wine are popular.