Fashion show in Zakopane: kerpets, hearts, portoks and beads
Fashion in the Podhale region is a global phenomenon. Hurals always kept up to date: at first they adopted characteristic red beads from the Krakow ladies, and then they looked at the tourists who were walking on the Zakopane street Krupuvki, warm jackets. They also liked decorative embroideries and sparkles. In such clothes, they still celebrate important holidays and family celebrations. Men wear kerpets (hand-sewn shoes made of soft leather), a cord (oversized sleeveless jacket made of felted cloth), tight-fitting trousers (“trousers”), decorated with stripes and leather laces. Their typical accessories are hats with feathers, a smoking pipe and a chupaga (hatchet on a long handle). Instead of jackets – chukha thrown over their shoulders – richly decorated with woolen braid, ribbons, appliqués and embroidery.
Over time, Hural fashionistas and fashionistas who tried to keep up with the dandies from Giewont added to this rich set stylish Chicago sweaters and short colored flower skirts. According to Stanislava Trebuni-Stashel, an expert on goral fashion and the author of the album “Suit of the Podhalese Gural”, it’s not enough just to look beautiful, it must also be fashionable. Because, as she says, “it’s all about joy”:
The folk costume in Podhale is still living and developing, and is even experiencing its heyday. In the 1990s, he again returned to the Zakopane landscape, acquiring additional functions and values. Controversial items of clothing sometimes appear that distinguish the modern fashion of Podhalya from the original. This huge variety of forms is also perplexing to the gurals themselves: “The women themselves don’t know that this is Gural or monsieur clothing.” In addition, the emotional attitude of the gouralians to this element of cultural heritage is important. Regardless of fashion and trends, the folk costume has always been perceived as a link, connecting the past and the present, which allowed the gural people to feel “at home”.
Raspberry caftans (sukman) and black embroidery Vilanuva
It is said that this costume was modeled on ornaments on the gate in front of the palace of Jan III Sobieski in the Warsaw district of Wilanów. The Wilanjan costume, characteristic of this part of Mazovia, is distinguished by black embroidery that adorns the upper part of the white sleeves of a woman’s shirt – a motif that was also readily used by the young generation of ethno-modelers. Long skirts on the floor are covered with an apron (10 centimeters shorter) – white, blue, green or various shades of yellow. And, of course, silk pastel ribbons and beads woven into the hair. The girls stabbed the braids on the head in the form of a crown, and married women wore white linen, decorated with lace caps. High cylinders or felt hats add elegance to men. Well, “sukman” is a caftan, most often dark blue or dark green. “On holidays, peasants in Mazovia wear blue succans that reach their knees, with raspberry-colored inserts and cords,” wrote Oscar Kolberg. Even in the 19th century, locals dressed in this way could be found on the left bank of the Vistula – from Vilanuv and Povsin to Nadazhin, Rashin and Piaseczno.
Peacock feather and “krakuska” by Tadeusz Kosciuszko
The Krakow costume owes its glory to the leader of the uprising of 1794, Tadeusz Kosciuszko, who, hiding from Russian spies, wore a Krakow costume, that is, “dressed like a peasant.” To emphasize the merit of the cosigners in the victory at Raclawice, Kosciuszko also swore allegiance to the people in the white sukman on the main square of Krakow.
Fame Kosciuszko led to the fact that the Krakow costume began to be worn throughout Poland. According to Jadwiga Koshutskaya, some of its elements, especially sukman (caftan) and a “confederate” hat, were included in the rebel uniforms during the 19th century popular uprisings. But the popularity of the female Krakow folk costume was facilitated by the Krakow intelligentsia of the Young Poland circle, thanks to which peacock feathers and hats, white aprons, beautifully embroidered silk corsets and red beads became simply fashionable.
Овowicz strips: cinnabar, white, purple
This is one of the most luxurious and spectacular traditional costumes in all of Poland. He is still worn on the occasion of holidays and other important events. A distinctive feature is strips of various shapes, colors, and in arbitrary combinations that change over time. Stripes adorn women’s skirts, dresses, sweaters, aprons, corsets and vests, as well as men’s trousers.
In the second half of the 19th century, fabrics in red tones prevailed, with small separate stripes or rays. The beginning of the 20th century is the time of the transformation of the Lovic costume. The background for the stripes turned orange, and the lines of different shades of green woven on it began to enrich with cinnabar, white and purple colors. However, the apogee of change, affecting primarily women’s costume, fell on the interwar period. Among the shades of stripes, cold colors began to dominate: green, purple, emerald, obtained through the use of aniline dyes. The variety of fabrics, the brightness of colors and the undoubted attractiveness led to the so-called “catching fashion”: weavers from other regions began to create similar patterns.
Kuyaviak “dresses richly”
Not all original elements of the Kuyavian costume have survived to this day, so we can only see it thanks to the work of artists. Especially the landscape painter Wojciech Gerson: his paintings, written in the middle of the 19th century, served the outstanding ethnographer Oscar Kolberg to illustrate the volume of Kuyava, published in 1867. Over time, impressions of the Kuyavian costume were transformed and presented in her works by the famous artist and designer of fabrics Zofia Stryenskaya, who was fascinated by rural folklore, famous in the interwar twenty years.
Kuyaviac can be recognized first of all by the original headdress: the Kuchma fur hat, tied to the side, a shepherd’s hat with wide brim, a confederate hat or a cap with a varnished visor that is famously crumpled on its side. To this – a linen shirt and a silk scarf tied around the neck. Women flaunt in shawls and caps, married ladies collect their hair in a bun and decorate it with scarves. Plus a corset, “sukman”, a skirt, apron and compulsory jewelry.
Hodaki and Amber Pipes from the Forest
Modest and devoid of jewelry – this was the men’s outfit of the Kurps, residents of Mazovsha and Podlasie. On their heads they wore Confederate hats, woven from pine roots hats with varnished visors, and in summer – cap-hats. Cloth-wrapped legs were worn with “walkers” (sabot shoes made of leather or linden bark) or shoes with bootlegs indicating prosperity. The most expensive part of the men’s wardrobe was a brown sukman, and in winter – a sheepskin sheepskin coat with a black sheepskin collar. Do not forget about accessories. In addition to the costume of the Kurp flight attendants, beekeepers and peasants were graceful carved oak staves, birch or amber smoking pipes, stylish snuffboxes from horn and bags made of badger skin.
A checkered skirt or horizontal stripes, white shirts decorated with lace, thick woolen scarves thrown over the shoulders, and a warmed coat – the so-called “angka” – these, in turn, were the hallmarks of the festively dressed chicken ladies. They were given chic beads with a pendant in the form of a coin or a cross.
Golden Yarmolks of Warmia
A simple, but at the same time solid, festive outfit of the Warmian women perfectly emphasized the silhouette. A wide velvet or silk three-meter skirt decorated with flounces was complemented by a flat yermolka hat richly embroidered with real gold and silver, which was tied under the chin. It was a real lace masterpiece. Usually a nun sewed such a hat, and only married women could wear it. Headwear was distinguished by the shape, richness of embroidery and the ingenuity of jewelry, depending on the woman’s age, her wealth and circumstances in which these hats were worn. Warmian fashionistas also liked to wear earrings, their hair was stabbed with special hairpins. The Warmian folk costume everywhere was no longer worn at the end of the 19th century.
Cieszyn: red stockings, cufflinks and belt
The fashion of Cieszyn, a multicultural city located at the junction of important trade routes, has its roots in the Renaissance. A sophisticated women’s costume was sewn from expensive fabrics, and then decorated with gilded embroideries and elegant jewelry. Shine was given to him by round or heart-shaped cufflinks with which a blouse (“cabotka”) was fastened under the neck and, first of all, a silver Cieszyn belt, to which were attached thin chains located on the folds of a skirt and an apron. All jewelry was invented and smelted by masters from the cities of Skoczów, Cieszyn and Jablunkov, famous throughout Cieszyn Silesia.
This is an unusually modest outfit: simple, homespun, usually linen or woolen clothes almost completely disappeared from the Bilgorai landscape during World War II.
“The women’s costume had an archaic and unique character, with its appearance resembled the literary and artistic images of the ancient Slavic costume,” read on the website strojeludowe.net. Made up his shirt, skirt and linen apron. The most elegant and complex, as always, were the hats: for married women – caps stretched over wooden hoops with ribbons hanging to the waist, and from the first years of the 20th century – the so-called “wrappers” on which the scarf was worn. Pink beads at the neck.
The most characteristic part of the male version of the costume was a bag in the shape of a horseshoe, or “wicket”, which was worn most often for the holidays, always on the right shoulder.